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Electronic business transactions, commerce or internet trade. May be conducted between companies (B2B) or between companies and customers (B2C) that are wholly or partially conducted over the internet or similar public or private computer ... [read more]


The process of receiving, packaging and shipping orders for goods. [read more]


An online market place. A type of e-commerce site where product or service information is provided by multiple third parties, whereas transactions are processed by the marketplace operator. [read more]


Online payment transactions on the internet. A subset of an e-commerce transaction to include electronic payment for buying and selling goods or services offered through the Internet. [read more]

Early Harvest

This term refers to conclusion of selected areas under negotiations before agreement is reached on all areas being negotiated (contrast with single undertaking). [read more]


Economic Committee - works to remove structural and regulatory obstacles that inhibit cross-border trade and investment that are created by behind-the-borders barriers. Promotes structural reform within APEC which consists of improvements made ... [read more]


Economic and technical cooperation - one of the three cooperative pillars of APEC, ECOTECH involves capacity building and information sharing activities. The objective is to help members, particularly developing economies, benefit from the ... [read more]


Export Credit Refinancing - Scheme is another credit facility to finance exports. This scheme was launched nationwide by Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) in 1989. BNM has made available the pre-shipment and post-shipment ECR facilities through commercial ... [read more]


Energy Efficient Vehicle - are vehicles that meet a set of define specification in terms of carbon emission level (g/km) and fuel consumption (l/100km ) and include fuel efficient vehicles, hybrid, EV and alternatively fuelled vehicles e.g LPG, ... [read more]


Environmentally Hazardous Substances - is a substance that is included in the EHS reference list, or if not in the list, must be assigned a hazard category under the GHS classification scheme.  [read more]


Exclusion List- Products which are excluded from any commitments of liberalisation. [read more]


End of Life Vehicle -  vehicle that have been considered ‘waste’ in the manner the owners have decided to withdraw the vehicle from the road. Damaged car due to road accident that cannot be repaired can be also considered as ELV. [read more]


Refers to all persons who, at any time during the reference week work at least one hour for pay, profit or family gain (as an employer, employee, own account worker or unpaid family worker). [read more]

Enabling Clause

Derogates from the MFN principle. It allows members to give better treatment through preferential trading arrangements for trade in goods.  [read more]

Equipment Manufacturing Services

Companies that test, manufacture, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). [read more]