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Electronic business transactions, commerce or internet trade. May be conducted between companies (B2B) or between companies and customers (B2C) that are wholly or partially conducted over the internet or similar public or private computer ... [read more]


The process of receiving, packaging and shipping orders for goods. [read more]


An online market place. A type of e-commerce site where product or service information is provided by multiple third parties, whereas transactions are processed by the marketplace operator. [read more]


Online payment transactions on the internet. A subset of an e-commerce transaction to include electronic payment for buying and selling goods or services offered through the Internet. [read more]

Early Harvest

This term refers to conclusion of selected areas under negotiations before agreement is reached on all areas being negotiated (contrast with single undertaking). [read more]


Refers to all persons who, at any time during the reference week work at least one hour for pay, profit or family gain (as an employer, employee, own account worker or unpaid family worker). [read more]

Enabling Clause

Derogates from the MFN principle. It allows members to give better treatment through preferential trading arrangements for trade in goods.  [read more]

Equipment Manufacturing Services

Companies that test, manufacture, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). [read more]


Refer to goods (locally produced or manufactured or imports for subsequent exports) which are taken out of the country. The value of exports refers to free on board (f.o.b.). [read more]

Export Competition

Export competition refers to export subsidy or other measure which acts to maintain producer’s price at levels above those prevailing in international market. This is one of the major pillars negotiated under the Doha Round and consists of ... [read more]

Export Credits

 Export credit is provided by a bank in exporter’s country to finance exports.   [read more]

Export Credit Guarantees

 The Export Credit Guarantees is provided by government entities to guarantee credit up to 100% of the export value on a short-term to long term basis. [read more]

Export Credit Insurance

It is issued by Exim Bank to cover the following risks: Commercial Risks (e.g. insolvency of buyer) Economic Risks (e.g. blockage or delay in the transfer of payment to Malaysia, Imposition of import restrictions or the cancellation of valid import ... [read more]

Export Subsidies

Aims to encourage export of goods and discourage sale of goods in the domestic market through low-cost loans or tax relief for exporters, or government financed international advertising or R&D. An export subsidy reduces the price paid by ... [read more]


Economic Committee - works to remove structural and regulatory obstacles that inhibit cross-border trade and investment that are created by behind-the-borders barriers. Promotes structural reform within APEC which consists of improvements made ... [read more]